The end of literature or literature English book is at hand, but despite of that it will survive all the historical and technological changes. The presence of new media has involved the doubt that the importance of the printed book has diminished.
Printed books, newspaper, magazine, etc are the part of western literature and the western style democracies. Although the freedom to access printed material was there, but censorship always stayed side by side.
Back at that time revolution like the French and American occurred with the help of the printing press. The Internet is playing the same note today. Modern literature is vernacular literature. In the modern research university, there are two charges, Wissenschaft and Buildung.
Although the university trained writers have given us the real sense of literature, but the non university sources have contributed a lot too. Freedom of speech is the most important aspect of modern democracies. Here you can not only say whatever you want, but you are not responsible for whatever you have said.
Such as sir Walter Scott’s novels have been held responsible for causing the American civil war.
Additionally the newest modes of media are becoming the reason of the death of literature. It is now considered as successful if your novel or short story has become a movie or tv series. Likewise, people used to take way of reality in the early times, but these days they are more interested in DVD, internet or radio.
Since the movie adaptations of the famous novels are available, it occurs that most of the people come towards reading after watching those films.
The transfer of literature on other mediums
New generations understand the necessity of learning from literature English book, thus they are going to the films or other modern literary studies. Every book on article is now available online, then you just have to enter but for some people like Milers, reading a printed book works out.
The different features present in literature, for instance the print format, title pages, etc make readers know that they are holding a specific type of literary work in hand. This is called literature.
The simplest word or sentence that we use brilliantly in a fictitious way that is the real power of literature. There are also some literary works done like Joyce’s Finneganswave, that cannot be translated due to their words. It has the kind of work that make it difficult for the reader to go into virtual reality. The literature instead they focus on the linguistic surface.
Furthermore, language in literature is denoted so it refers only to the imaginary world. This trick sends the reader into an interesting voyage.
Reading Of Literature English Book
Reading is an incarnated as well as a spiritual act. Literature is a use of words that makes things happen by way of its readers.
The literary works opening sentences have some special forces. They are said to be as open sesames.
It takes fewer words which turns me a believer and a seer. In other words I start observing in the reality. Many of the literature phrases let you enter into the world of virtuality. As we take an example where Sophocles ‘s Oedipus the king ask a question to the procession of Theban priest and citizens “my sons! Newest generation of this ancient city of Thebes! Why are you here?” In the starting of the phrase it raises the question of generation. The Oedipus habit of questioning and not being satisfied until he finds a suitable answer always gets him into a trouble. The whole play depends on the first speech of Oedipus.
In every case it was cited that the opening of the phrase takes instantly into another world. Every other next word provides more information. Every line impacts the reader when she opens the book. As he or she start reading it creates more interest to read further. Every word lets the reader to enter into a new era. It hooked the reader to keep reading. Sometimes the start of the book shows violence in a way of psychological, sexual, transgression and its also shows in some of the phrases in the book like In light and august.
It also creates an impact on the reader who thinks that the story belongs to him. The literature in short gives the pleasurable violence which turns into laughter as for example in Alice in the wonderland.
Why we say the literature is violence? And it is also pleasurable as It enters into the virtual world as in other words it protect us from violence. Literature carries a person to a place where the pain and pleasure meets together.
Author’s Perception about choosing words
As mentioned earlier that there is another method of defining the words of literature and that is via latency, where things are defined as per the author’s perspective. Likewise, in the medieval era, the dream vision approach was very common as Dante has expressed in the Divine Comedy. This approach is not in the fashion anymore, instead many other new approaches have been introduced, such as, Dostoevsky’s Completely new world as the name suggests, through this approach the author does not create an imaginary world, but tells about the real world that he is seen through his own eyes as Petersburg Visions in Verse and Prose by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The other is Anthony Trollope’s Dangerous Habit approach in which he used to write about usual things and his stories were told of the daily life. We can also say that they depict the Victorian English middle class life. He introduced another kind of writing that is “daydreaming” in which the writer is imagining everything with his open eyes. As Freud has told in the Psychoanalytic Theory, this aspect was also influenced by his childhood past that Trollope has also stated in his autobiography named, An Autobiography.
Now, the work of Henry James was entirely distinctive from Trollope and Dostoevsky as his characters have to be intelligent and sensitive. James believes that re-reading leads to the creation of a whole new work. It is like a re-vision and he called it “matter of the tale”.
Walter Benjamin’s Pure Language approach discusses the discrepancies that we have in between the original and translated works. This is why, there must be a pure language, or greater language that would act as an adjacent fragment for the readers.
According to another author Marcel Proust, the work of every writer has the different world in itself. He says that every work by the same author even opens an entirely new world for the reader. Lies and literature have got a deep connection where you will even find lying in a factual statement or even in a piece of painting. There are many other universes present around that are actually discovered by the artists, musicians, and writers.
Maurice Blanchot’s Siren’s Song focuses that literature has got two times, one is the pure time and the other is the secret of writing that he has defined by applying on the epic Ulysses. It is about playing with the words in a manner that the author’s worldly experience turn into an image for the reader.
Jaques Derrida has also emphasized on the concept that literature is another world of thought process by saying that even if the words have not been written, they stays around us. Literary work in every way provides us with the alternative reality that is called hyper-reality that effect the readers as well.
Reading literature is a need of human beings that is no way unhealthy. Moreover, it provides us with the access to the virtual reality. The real world judgements are influenced by the metaworld that should be underestimated. This is why, it is critical to have some form of virtual reality around you like computer games, or films.
Apart from literature English book, the Bible is also a piece if literature from the God, basically, and we have very distinctive reasons to read the sacred literature as compared to the secular text. The Bible was first printed in 1535 and King Jame’s 1 published the Authorized Version of Bible to be read in the Church in 1611.
Plato had two theories of why to read literature or rather, to speak properly. It seems like the Plato was against the rhapsodic poetry as it invokes the magnetized rings and create supernatural effects on the listeners. On the other hand, Shelley has justified the poetry and declared poets as the legislators of the world. Shelley implied them as a lawmaker of society as their work is read by the people and they unconsciously apply them in their lives. Just like the Trollope’s novels in which he has presented with his own assumptions. Although, those assumptions cannot be applied on every society and culture.
Reading literature is another way to get inside someone’s culture and adopt it. Children’s literature also has its importance in the age of printing.
As far as the Plato is concerned, his idea of poetry was something negative as it was considered as an imitation. The reasons for that, where it does not depict the real thing and the other was the imitation of idealistic people in the poetry due to which people were forgetting their real personalities and consider themselves as hero or heroines.
Plato’s condemnation of evil has not ended just here, but could be heard for the longest time in the Western culture when protestants condemned the novel reading. German philosopher Immanuel Kant argued that the novel reading lured readers to have sympathy with the fictitious characters. He forced that the people should have dealt with empathy in the real world rather. He called novel reading the Fantatcism.
Moral badness is also associated with the novels like the character of Catherine Morland from Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey (1775-1817) who were morally crooked and have irrational expectations related to themselves. This trait is also common in the actors that they are acting even when in the real life. It shows that the habitual readers are also engaged with this bad habit where they are more attached to the fantasy world. These days, the computer games and TV have replaced the print culture, but it is same as of the bad habit of staying in the virtual reality.
As compared to Plato, Aristotle has highly praised poetry with its forms of tragedy and epic. He cogitates them as the social reality. He admired imitation because according to him we take pleasure in imitation and we learn from imitating. For example, in the play Oedipus, the elements of pity and fear were present that depicted the social function of tragedy. In literature, everyone shares the same known myths and own them as a society.
Extracted the importance of reading and watching the literature, it is believed that literature reflects the social structure or society’s reality.
Literature as a behavioral method
Literature also causes the behavior hanging factor in the people who are attached to it. It can be remarked as Selfhood too, where the person is embodied with the ideological and cultural forces. Here, when such personalities are interviewed by the newspapers, the people become more interested in the author than their writings. Jacques Derrida has once again mentioned that he is just using his right to freedom of speech through his fiction work and no one can hold him responsible for any of the effects that his writings are creating. However, some other writers emphasizes that one cannot stay free from such responsibility. Anthony Trollope deems that author must only tell truth about life in their writings.
The writer derives the trust of reader by designing his or her words. As Albertine says that ‘charming art of lying with simplicity’. That is what makes them a confidence species that readers start relying on their words. It is another debate here that whatever the author has written is conveyed rightly to the reader in the very same context.
T.S. Eliot said it about poetry writing that it is a mug’s game to tell someone how to read. He further added that it is one a difficult task to teach someone to read and it is not an innocent skill. If someone can read and pick the meanings from in between the lines, means they are capable of reading, you simply cannot put the talent into someone. Moreover, it is not necessary that if someone is educated, they can read and interpret the piece of literature correctly.
The only way of feeling the Fantacism as per Kant is possible when you have put your mind, heart, and imagination into the literature English book. With this ability, a reader can develop his or her creativity and turn words into letters and words into shapes or images. Due to that image made, we often react when watching a novel adaptation as a film and screams if something is not up to our imagination. You have to be mentally, physically and mentally involved while reading. As we need to play music in its tempo, we need to read in a precise way as well. It also depends on the readers that how have they perceived certain piece of work and every reader has a different approach towards it.
Reading of Literature English book
The key to good reading is slow reading. It is critical so that you could picture the words and sentences in your mind. Through rhetorical reading, you can focus on the figurative language of the text. It can be described as the close reading as well. Whereas, through interrogation reading, you can check out the ideology, class, gender or race aspects within the literature.
There are two ways of reading that are innocent way and demystified way. These two types cannot work together. It has been said that the cultural studies and rhetorical reading has led to the death of literature. Rhetorical reading was more in the deconstructive form where the reader looks into the text in depth. Such as when the feminist approach was applied to the Milton’s Paradise Lost, it lost its brilliant ability.
As the allegro reading has made the reader to able to imagine the Swiss Family Robinson, the lento reading has made the same reader to look into the text in a critical way.
After the Swiss Family Robinson, the Robinson Crusoe and Alice in the Wonderland have kind of reflected an idea that impossibility is very much logical. These aspects are present in the modern literature English book that were absent from the Swiss Family Robinson.
One thing we need to understand that every literature written, represents its time period like The Swiss Family Robinson was from the period of Romanticism.
The stories of Robinson Crusoe and The Swiss Family Robison were open ended and episodic telling about more adventures to come. Whereas, the purpose of Swiss Family Robinson was to teach about natural history.
If we deconstruct the Alice in the Wonderland in contrast to the Robinson Crusoe, we will see that it is a story of a girl unlike those bunches of macho boys. She asked different questions throughout the story, but hardly gets any reply. All these books and stories that they made were more ideological.
The book, On Literature, beautifully covers the revolution in literature from paper to the virtual screens. The book teaches us the art of literature English book reading and the way great authors have worked on the immortal stories.